HUMAN BRAIN


Your brain is much better than you think; just use it. Leonardo Da Vinci

The human brain is the command center for the human nervous system. It recieves input from the sensory organs and sends output to the muscles.

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The large part of the brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into two hemispheres. Underneath lying the brainstem , and behind that sits cerebellum. The our most layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, which consists of four lobes, the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe.

The cerebral cortex is greatly enlarged in human brain, and it’s considered the seat of complex thought. The frontal lobes are associated with higher level functions such as self control , planning,logic and abstract thoughts . Visual process takes place in the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe process sound and language, and includes hippocampus and amygdala, which play roles in memory and emotions, respectively. The parietal lobe integrates input from different senses and it is important for spatial orientation and navigation.

The brainstem connects to the spinal cord and it consists of medulla oblongata, ponds and midbrain. Relaying information between the brain and the body, supplying some of the cranial nerves to the face and head , and performing critical functions in controlling the heart, breathing and consciousness .

Between the cerebrum and brainstem lie the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus relaying sensory and motor signals to the cortex and it is involved in regulating consciousness, sleep and alertness. The hypothalamus connects the nervous system to the endocrine system where hormones are produced via pituitary gland.

The cerebellum lies beneath the cerebrum and has important functions in motor control. It plays a role in coordination and balance and may also have some cognitive functions.

Intelligence


Definition of intelligence

Define intelligence:- is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual, to act purposefully, to think rationally, to deal effectively with his environment .

Intelligence classified in three categories

1. Abstract intelligence :- It is the ability to understand words, numbers and letters and to use them effectively abstract intelligence is required in ordinary academic subjects in schools such as reading, writing a solving academic problems.

Binet Kamath test of intelligence

Modified version of Stanford. Binet scale measuring intelligence of Indian children

It is an age scale where in the test are grouped into age levels extending from 3years to superior adult level ( 3years 22 years)

Each age level consist of six test

There is no test for ages 11 years to 21years

Piaget’ s theory: intelligence is an adaptive process that involves an interplay of biological maturaion and interaction with the environment . He views intellectual development as an evolution of cognitive processes such as understanding he laws of nature the principles of grammar and mathematical rules.

2 . Determinants of intelligence.

Heredity and environments Twin studies: identical twins/ fraternal twins

Environmental studies: environmental deprivation and environmental enrichment, cultural variation

Heredity places limits on one’s intellectual potential and environments determine where one falls within these limits.

3. Concrete intelligence. It an ability to understand and deal with things, as in skilled trades or scientific appliances this is also known as mechanical or motor intelligence.

Social intelligence

Social intelligence is revealed when a person is able to establish social relations in conformity with his social and cultural norms.