Specific Learning Disorders

The child presents with a serious delay in learning to read which is evident from the early years. The problems may include omissions, distortions or substitutions of words, long hesitations, a reversal of words or simply reading.

Writing and spelling are also impaired. It is important to differentiate the disorder from scholastic backwardness, there for a proper assessment is needed.

specific developmental disorder of motor functions

It is also called motor skill disorder, developmental coordination disorder, clumsy child syndrome or motor dysphagia. It is characterized by poor coordination in daily activities of life, for example in dressing, walking, feeding and playing. There is an inability to perform fine or gross motor tasks.

Specific disorder of speech and language (dysphasia)

There are three types

1. Phonological disorder (dyslalia)

It is characterized by below-par accuracy in the use of speech sounds despite normal language skills. The problem including severe articulations errors that make it difficult for others to understand the speech. Phones or speech sounds are omitted, distorted or substituted ( e.g.cart for caret, book for blue, etc..)

2. Expressive language disorder; It is characterised by a below par ability of using expressive speech. The problems include restricted vocabulary ,difficulty in selecting appropriate words, and immature grammatical usage. Cluttering of speech may also be present.

3. Receptive language disorder. The disorder often presents as a receptive – expressive language disorder and both impairments are present together. The disorder is characterized by a below-par understanding of language. Problems include failure to respond to simple instruction; It is obviously important to rule out deafness and pervasive developmental disorder.

Specific Mathematical Disorder (dyscalculia)

The child presents with mathematics abilities well below the level expected for the mental age. The problems may include failure to understand simple mathematical concepts. Failure to recognize mathematical signs or numerical symbols, difficulty in carrying out mathematical manipulation, and difficulty in learning mathematical tables.


The treatment of specific developmental disorders is based on learning theory principles and behavioral approaches. It involves the use of special remedial teaching, focusing on the underlying deficit ( eg: perceptual-motor training in motor skills disorders) The treatment of common co-morbid emotional problems is often necessary. Parental education and counseling are important components of good management.

Continuing…………..next post


Depression;a mental health disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.

Possible cause a combination of biological, psychological and social sources of distress. Increasingly, research suggests that these factors may cause changes in brain function, including altered activities of certain neural circuits in the brain.


• Depression represents a cluster or symptoms

• Diagnosis with depression only requires people to have a few of the symptoms

• A variety of different things can cause and be caused by depression

• Emotions;anger, anxiety, grief , guilt and shame.

• Believing that others have hidden motives or are out to harm them.

• Doubting the loyalty of others

• Being hypersensitive to criticism

• Having trouble working with others

• Being quick to become angry and hostile

• Becoming detached or socially isolated

• Being argumentative and defensive

• Having trouble seeing their own problems

• Having trouble relaxing

• These may include changes in sleeping, appetite,energy level variation, concentration, daily behavior or self-esteem and suicidal tendency.

• Thoughts; cognitive distortion

• Relationship:poor, self-esteem, unhealthy / unsupportive. Relationships need for external validation

• Physical: Neurochemical imbalances, poor neutrinos,exhaustion, insufficient sleep, medication side affects

• Environmental: High stress Environments that prevent relaxation / rest and increase hopelessness/ helplessness.

Strength based assessment

What does this mean to you?


Treatment consists of anti-depression

  • Medication
  • Talk therapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Psychotherapy
  • Meditation/ yoga


Mood Disorder




Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive compulsive disorder is a mental illness that causes repeated unwanted thoughts or sensations or the argue to do something over and over again. Some people have both disorders obsessions and compulsions.

An obsessive thought might be to wash your hands many times after touch something that could be dirty. Although you may not wanted to think or do these things but, you feel powerless to stop.

Thoughts and activities that, people with OCD

  • It is beyond your control
  • It is not enjoyable
  • It is interfere with work, social life
  • Take up at least an hour a day


Repeated chekking, contamination, simmerty and ordering, rumination and intrusive thoughts.